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中英互译的技巧介绍

  学英语的人都知道,翻译一个技术性很强的活,因为英语和汉语的使用习惯、语言差异甚至不同文化所产生的影响等等,这些因素都决定了翻译的难度,那中英互译有什么技巧呢?下面就由上海翻译公司的翻译人员给大家讲下吧。

  Everyone who learns English knows that translation is a highly technical activity, because the usage habits of English and Chinese, language differences and even the influence of different cultures and so on, all these factors determine the difficulty of translation. What skills do you have in translating English into Chinese? Now let's talk to you from the translators of Shanghai Translation Company.

  增译主语

  Translation subject

  由于表达习惯不同,英文中常有省略主语的现象,在翻译成汉语时要把它们译出来。情况一般有以下几种:

  Owing to different expressive habits, there are often omissions of subjects in English, which should be translated into Chinese. Generally, there are the following kinds of situations:

  以抽象名词作主语,而中文的表达习惯则需要把抽象变为具体;英文中常常会为了避免重复而多用介词,中文则不怕重复,一个词会用上好几遍;英语中的复数名词译为汉语时,常常加入这些、各种、种种等,要视具体语境情况而定。

  In English, prepositions are often used to avoid repetition and Chinese is not afraid of repetition. A word can be used several times. When plural nouns in English are translated into Chinese, they are often added, depending on the context. Fixed.

  增译谓语

  Translation of predicates

  同理,需要增译谓语的情况也时有出现。英语中出现两个或多个相同谓语时,常常会省略,以使句子不那么赘余,而中文中则要译出来,使其表达更加地道。英文中的介词短语译为中文时往往要增译动词,而有些英语中的名词在译为中文时也要加入相应的动词,使其意义更加完整,表达更加明确。

  Similarly, the need for additional translations of predicates also occurs from time to time. When two or more identical predicates occur in English, they are often omitted to make sentences less redundant, while in Chinese, they are translated to make their expressions more authentic. Prepositional phrases in English are often translated into Chinese with additional verbs, while some nouns in English are translated into Chinese with corresponding verbs to make their meanings more complete and express more clearly.

  时间状语的翻译

  Translation of Adverbial of Time

  1、时间状语常常可以直接翻译,一般译到主句前。

  1. Adverbials of time can often be translated directly, usually before the main sentence.

  2、有的时间状语从句引导词除了表示时间以外,还会附带条件性,所以在翻译的时候要译出条件关系。

  2. Some time adverbial clauses have conditionality besides time, so conditionality should be translated in translation.

  原因状语的翻译

  Translation of Causal Adverbial

  1、英语中的状语位置较为灵活,既可以放在主句前也可置于主句后,而中文表达常常遵循“前因后果”的顺序,所以在翻译的时候也要注意调整语序。

  1. Adverbials in English are more flexible, they can be placed before or after the main sentence, while Chinese expressions often follow the order of "antecedents and consequences", so we should pay attention to adjusting the word order when translating.

  2、但上述情况也不是绝对的,原因状语也可放在主句后,这样也对应了汉语中的结构“之所以…是因为”。

  2. But the above situation is not absolute. The adverbial of cause can also be placed after the main sentence, which corresponds to the structure in Chinese. Because.

  目的状语的翻译

  Translation of Target Adverbial

  1、总的来说,目的状语放在主句前翻译,把说明情况的主句放在后面。

  1. Generally speaking, the target adverbial is translated before the main sentence and the subject sentence explaining the situation is put behind.

  2、目的状语也可译在主句后边,表示以免、以防、使得、生怕等等。

  2. The target adverbial can also be translated after the main sentence to express avoidance, prevention, making, fear and so on.

  译成汉语的主动句

  Active Sentences Translated into Chinese

  1、一般被动句的主语是无生命的主语,翻译时常常要将原文主语译为汉语中的主语。

  1. The subject of a passive sentence is an inanimate subject. In translation, the subject of the original text is often translated into the subject of Chinese.

  2、主语宾语颠倒位置

  2. Subject-object inversion

  一般英语中当动作主体的词前加上by时或由介词短语构成时,那么在译文中by后边的动作主体词或该介词短语中的名次就要充当主语,宾语则是原文中的主语。

  In general, when the subject of an action is preceded by a by or is composed of prepositional phrases, the subject of the action or the noun of the prepositional phrase behind by in the translated text will act as the subject, while the object is the subject of the original text.

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